2017/2018 Neco Gce Biology Obj And Theory Now Posted

Biology OBJ:
Sexual reproduction:This is a type of reproduction which
involves the fussion of male gametes(eg sperm cell) and
the female gametes(eg egg cell) to form zygote which
later develops to a young offspring
-Birth Control Sponge (Today Sponge)
-Birth Control Vaginal Ring (NuvaRing)
-Birth Control Shot (Depo-Provera)
-Birth Control Implant (Implanon and Nexplanon)
-Mutualism represents a symbiotic relationship where
both species involved benefit from the relationship while
commensalism represents a symbiotic relationship
where only one organism benefits while the other does
not benefit from the relationship
-Good examples for mutualism include the relationship
between bees and flowers as well as humans and
digestive bacteria while Examples for commensalism
include hermit crabs using dead gastropods for shelter
or millipedes travelling on birds
(i)Hooks and suckers allow it to hold on tightly to the
wall of the intestine
(ii)Its flat body gives it a large surface area to absorb
(iii)It has no need of a mouth or gut as it absorbs
already digested food
-Evidences from Palaeontology
(i) Acidification: This is a method of adding acid to a loe
acid food. Acid can be used in food to slow down or
prevent the growth of disease or spoilage causing
(ii) Drying of Food: Food drying is a method of food
preservation in which food is dried (dehydrated or
desiccated). Drying inhibits the growth of bacteria,
yeasts, and mold through the removal of water.
(iii) Home Canning: Home canning is a way to preserve
fresh foods in glass jars and then heating the jars to kill
the organisms that would create spoilage
(iv) Freezing Food: This is a method of preserving food
by lowering the temperature to inhibit microorganism
(i) Vector is an organism that does not cause disease
itself but which spreads infection by conveying
pathogens from one host to another. Species of
mosquito, for example, serve as vectors for the deadly
disease Malaria
(ii) Refuse can be defined as All nonhazardous solid
waste from a community that requires collection and
transport to a processing or disposal site
(iii) Sewage is a type of wastewater that is produced
from a community of people. It is characterized by
volume or rate of flow, physical condition, chemical and
toxic constituents, and its bacteriologic status
(i) Mineral salts from soil
(ii) Products of photosynthesis from leaves
Respiration is the exchange of oxygen and carbon
dioxide between the toad and its environment. Oxygen is
taken into the body and carbon dioxide is given off.
Every cell of the body consumes oxygen. With the help
of oxygen, the assimilated food which is stored within
the cells is slowly oxidised.
The result is the liberation of heat energy, and formation
of carbon dioxide and water. Thus when glucose is
oxidised, one molecule of glucose combines with six
molecules of oxygen to form six molecules of carbon
dioxide and six molecules of water.
(i) consideration of the oxygen isotopic records of low
latitude temperature variations;
(ii) discussion of the physical arguments for temperature
stability within the tropics;
(iii) examination of climate model-derived tropical
(iv) examination of model evidence for tropical salinity
differences between different time periods in Earth
(i) Natality(birth rate): This refers to the rate of given
birth to new organisms. This generally (be it plants or
animals) leads to increase in population.
(ii) Mortality(death rate): This refers to the rates at which
organisms die in a habitat. Mortality generally leads to a
decrease in population.
(iii) Immigration (dispersal): This is the movement of
organisms from different habitats into a new habitat.
This tends to increase the population of this new area.
(iv) Emigration: This is the movement of organisms out
of a habitat due to either scarcity of food or
unfavourable conditions or for breeding purposes. This,
however, reduces the population of a habitat.
(v) Availability of food: The availability of food in a given
habitat tends to increase the population of that habitat
through rapid rate of reproduction and other organisms
coming into feed.
(i) Homozygote an individual having two identical alleles
of a particular gene or genes and so breeding true for the
corresponding characteristic.
(ii) Heterozygote is an individual having two different
alleles of a particular gene or genes, and so giving rise to
varying offspring
(iii) Parasite is an organism that lives in or on an
organism of another species (its host) and benefits by

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